Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-March, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Use of Cryoprecipitate in Newborn Infants

Manvi Tyagi, Alvaro Dendi, Atnafu Mekonnen Tekleab, Mario Motta

Keywords : Cryoprecipitate, Cryoprecipitated antihemophilic factor, Factor I, Factor VIII, Factor XII, Fibrinogen, Newborn neonate infant, Transfusion product

Citation Information : Tyagi M, Dendi A, Tekleab AM, Motta M. Use of Cryoprecipitate in Newborn Infants. 2023; 2 (1):11-18.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11002-0045

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 07-04-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Cryoprecipitate is a transfusion blood product derived from fresh–frozen plasma (FFP), comprised mainly of the insoluble precipitate that gravitates to the bottom of the container when plasma is thawed and refrozen. It is highly enriched in coagulation factors I (fibrinogen), VIII, and XIII; von Willebrand factor (vWF); and fibronectin. In this article, we have reviewed currently available information on the preparation, properties, and clinical importance of cryoprecipitate in treating critically ill neonates. We have searched extensively in the databases PubMed, Embase, and Scopus after short-listing keywords to describe the current relevance of cryoprecipitate.

  1. Nair PM, Rendo MJ, Reddoch–Cardenas KM, et al. Recent advances in use of fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, immunoglobulins, and clotting factors for transfusion support in patients with hematologic disease. Semin Hematol 2020;57(2):73–82. DOI: 10.1053/j.seminhematol.2020.07.006.
  2. Caudill JS, Nichols WL, Plumhoff EA, et al. Comparison of coagulation factor XIII content and concentration in cryoprecipitate and fresh–frozen plasma. Transfusion 2009;49(4):765–770. DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.02021.x.
  3. Farrugia A, Prowse C. Studies on the procurement of blood coagulation factor VIII: Effects of plasma freezing rate and storage conditions on cryoprecipitate quality. J Clin Pathol 1985;38(4):433–437. DOI: 10.1136/jcp.38.4.433.
  4. Foster PR, Dickson AJ, McQuillan TA, et al. Control of large-scale plasma thawing for recovery of cryoprecipitate factor VIII. Vox Sang 1982;42(4):180–189. DOI:10.1111/j.1423-0410.1982.tb01093.x
  5. Poon MC. Cryoprecipitate: uses and alternatives. Transfus Med Rev. Jul 1993;7(3):180–192. DOI: 10.1016/s0887-7963(93)70137-6.
  6. Orthner CL, MacPherson JL. Cryoprecipitated antihemophilic factor production from blood collected in quad packs or from blood with delayed processing. The importance of plasma thawing method. Transfusion 1984;24(6):516–519. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1984.24685066815.x.
  7. Slichter SJ, Counts RB, Henderson R, et al. Preparation of cryoprecipitated factor VIII concentrates. Transfusion 1976;16(6):616–626. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1976.16677060245.x.
  8. Farrugia A, Sibinga CTS. The discovery of cryoprecipitate as a modality for hemophilia A: Augmenting the allocation of credit. Transfusion 2021;61(8):2517–2518. DOI: 10.1111/trf.16562.
  9. Motta M, Del Vecchio A, Radicioni M. Clinical use of fresh–frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate in neonatal intensive care unit. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011;24(Suppl. 1):129–131. DOI: 10.3109/14767058.2011.607677.
  10. Sparrow RL, Greening DW, Simpson RJ. A protocol for the preparation of cryoprecipitate and cryodepleted plasma. Methods Mol Biol 2011;728:259–265. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-61779-068-3_17.
  11. Hadjesfandiari N, Levin E, Serrano K. Risk analysis of transfusion of cryoprecipitate without consideration of ABO group. Transfusion 2021;61(1):29–34. DOI: 10.1111/trf.16125.
  12. Henrichs KF, Howk N, Masel DS, et al. Providing ABO-identical platelets and cryoprecipitate to (almost) all patients: Approach, logistics, and associated decreases in transfusion reaction and red blood cell alloimmunization incidence. Transfusion 2012;52(3):635–640. DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03329.x.
  13. Raycraft T, Bartoszko J, Karkouti K, et al. Practice patterns of ABO-matching for cryoprecipitate and patient outcomes after ABO-compatible versus incompatible cryoprecipitate. Vox Sang 2022;117(9):1105–1111. DOI: 10.1111/vox.13330.
  14. Sahoo D, Silwal P. Effect of cryoprecipitate transfusion without ABO group consideration: A nightmare experience. Asian J Transfus Sci 2022;16(1):140–143. DOI: 10.4103/ajts.ajts_83_21.
  15. Howard PL, Bovill EG, Golden E. Postthaw stability of fibrinogen in cryoprecipitate stored between 1 and 6 degrees C. Transfusion 1991;31(1):30–31. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1991.31191096181.x.
  16. Dormandy KM. Cryoprecipitate and the use of the plastic blood bag system in the management of haemophilia and other coagulation disorders. Proc R Soc Med 1968;61(6):595–598. PMID: 5301887.
  17. El-Ekiaby M, Goubran HA, Radosevich M, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of minipooled solvent/detergent-filtered cryoprecipitate factor VIII. Haemophilia 2011;17(5):e884–e888. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2011.02511.x.
  18. Egorikhina MN, Aleynik DY, Rubtsova YP, et al. Hydrogel scaffolds based on blood plasma cryoprecipitate and collagen derived from various sources: Structural, mechanical and biological characteristics. Bioact Mater 2019;4:334–345. DOI: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2019.10.003.
  19. Margolis J, Eisen M. Preparation of stable lyophilized cryoprecipitate in the original frozen plasma bags. Vox Sang 1986;50(1):38–41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1423-0410.1986.tb04843.x.
  20. Hambley H, Davidson JF, Walker ID, et al. Freeze dried cryoprecipitate: a clinical evaluation. J Clin Pathol 1983;36(5):574–576. DOI:10.1136/jcp.36.5.574
  21. El-Ekiaby M, Sayed MA, Caron C, et al. Solvent-detergent filtered (S/D-F) fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate minipools prepared in a newly designed integral disposable processing bag system. Transfus Med 2010;20(1):48–61. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3148.2009.00963.x.
  22. Lepatan LM, Hernandez FG, Montoya MM, et al. Cryoprecipitate-removed plasma ‘cryo-removed plasma’ as a source of factor IX in the treatment of haemophilia B. Haemophilia 2004;10(3):254–258. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2004.00884.x.
  23. Mintz PD, Blatt PM, Kuhns WJ, et al. Antithrombin III in fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and cryoprecipitate-depleted plasma. Transfusion 1979;19(5):597–598. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1979.19580059818.x.
  24. O'Shaughnessy DF, Atterbury C, Maggs PB, et al. Guidelines for the use of fresh–frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and cryosupernatant. Br J Haematol 2004;126(1):11–28. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.04972.x.
  25. Prohaska W, Kretschmer V. Simple method for preparation of cryoprecipitate (CP) and cryodepleted plasma (CDP). Infusionsther Klin Ernahr 1984;11(6):342–344. DOI: 10.1159/000221691.
  26. Sparrow RL, Simpson RJ, Greening DW. A protocol for the preparation of cryoprecipitate and cryo-depleted plasma for proteomic studies. Methods Mol Biol 2017;1619:23–30. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7057-5_2.
  27. Forbes CD, Hunter J, Barr RD, et al. Cryoprecipitate therapy in haemophilia. Scott Med J 1969;14(1):1–9. DOI: 10.1177/003693306901400101.
  28. Foster P, White B. Thaw–siphon technique for factor-VIII cryoprecipitate. Lancet 1978;2(8089):574. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(78)92903-3.
  29. Lokhandwala PM, O'Neal A, Patel EU, et al. Hemostatic profile and safety of pooled cryoprecipitate up to 120 hours after thawing. Transfusion 2018;58(5):1126–1131. DOI: 10.1111/trf.14550.
  30. Marik A, Philip J, Mallhi RS, et al. Effect of prolonged storage at 2 degrees C-6 degrees C for 120 h on the coagulation factors of thawed cryoprecipitate: Can we extend its shelf life post thaw beyond 4 h? Asian J Transfus Sci 2021;15(2):146–150. DOI: 10.4103/ajts.AJTS_38_19.
  31. Saxena S, Odono V, Francis RB Jr, et al. Can storage of thawed cryoprecipitate be extended to more than six hours? Am J Clin Pathol 1990;94(2):203–206. DOI: 10.1093/ajcp/94.2.203.
  32. Sheffield WP, Bhakta V, Jenkins C. Stability of coagulation protein activities in single units or pools of cryoprecipitate during storage at 20-24 degrees C for up to 24 h. Vox Sang 2016;110(1):12–19. DOI: 10.1111/vox.12309.
  33. De M, Banerjee D, Chandra S, et al. A simple method for preparation of good quality cryoprecipitate. Indian J Med Res 1989;90:32–35. PMID: 2498203.
  34. Davidson JF, McAdam JH, Mackenzie MJ, et al. Proceedings: Improved factor VIII yield in cryoprecipitate using a quick thaw technique. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 1975;34(2):590. PMID: 1198502.
  35. Hughes C, Thomas KB, Schiff P, et al. Effect of delayed blood processing on the yield of factor VIII in cryoprecipitate and factor VIII concentrate. Transfusion 1988;28(6):566–570. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1988.28689059033.x.
  36. Farrugia A, Grasso S, Douglas S, et al. Modulation of fibrinogen content in cryoprecipitate by temperature manipulation during plasma processing. Transfusion 1992;32(8):755–759. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1992.32893032105.x.
  37. Hoffman M, Jenner P. Variability in the fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor content of cryoprecipitate. Implications for reducing donor exposure. Am J Clin Pathol 1990;93(5):694–697. DOI: 10.1093/ajcp/93.5.694.
  38. George JN, Pickett EB, Heinz R. Platelet membrane microparticles in blood bank fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Blood 1986;68(1):307–309. PMID: 3087440.
  39. McVerry BA, Machin SJ. Incidence of allo-immunization and allergic reactions to cryoprecipitate in haemophilia. Vox Sang 1979;36(2):77–80. DOI: 10.1111/j.1423-0410.1979.tb04402.x.
  40. Krizanic KK, Pruller F, Rosskopf K, et al. Preparation and storage of cryoprecipitate derived from Amotosalen and UVA-Treated apheresis plasma and assessment of in vitro quality parameters. Pathogens 18 2022;11(7):805. DOI: 10.3390/pathogens11070805.
  41. Cid J, Caballo C, Pino M, et al. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of coagulation factors in cryoprecipitate prepared from fresh–frozen plasma inactivated with amotosalen and ultraviolet A light. Transfusion 2013;53(3):600–605. DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03763.x.
  42. Irsch J, Lin L. Pathogen inactivation of platelet and plasma blood components for transfusion using the INTERCEPT blood system. Transfus Med Hemother 2011;38(1):19–31. DOI: 10.1159/000323937.
  43. Green L, Bolton–Maggs P, Beattie C, et al. British Society of Haematology Guidelines on the spectrum of fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate products: Their handling and use in various patient groups in the absence of major bleeding. Br J Haematol 2018;181(1):54–67. DOI: 10.1111/bjh.15167.
  44. MacPhee M, Wilmer B, Beall D, et al. Protein composition of clots detected in pooled cryoprecipitate units. Transfusion 2013;53(3):651–654. DOI: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03778.x.
  45. Mei Z, McGonigle AM, Ward D, et al. Macroscopic and microscopic visual inspection of a formed clot in a cryoprecipitate unit. Transfusion 2021;61(9):2526–2527. DOI: 10.1111/trf.16575.
  46. Farrugia A. Storage of cryoprecipitate: Role of blood storage. Transfusion 2021;61(9):2800–2801. DOI: 10.1111/trf.16591.
  47. Green L, Backholer L, Wiltshire M, et al. The hemostatic properties of thawed pooled cryoprecipitate up to 72 hours. Transfusion 2016;56(6):1356–1361. DOI: 10.1111/trf.13571.
  48. Philip J, Kumarage S, Chatterjee T, et al. The possible advantages of cryoprecipitate prepared from fresh frozen plasma from blood stored for 24 hours. Lab Med 2014;45(2):111–115. DOI: 10.1309/lmv1e84uctrqqzp.
  49. Low WT, Gillon R, Jones P. A simple and inexpensive device for pooling cryoprecipitate. Lancet 24 1977;2(8039):641. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(77)92503-x.
  50. New HV, Berryman J, Bolton–Maggs PH, et al. Guidelines on transfusion for fetuses, neonates and older children. Br J Haematol 2016;175(5):784–828. DOI: 10.1111/bjh.14233.
  51. Arya RC, Wander G, Gupta P. Blood component therapy: Which, when and how much. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2011;27(2):278–284. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9185.81849.
  52. Liumbruno G, Bennardello F, Lattanzio A, et al. Recommendations for the transfusion of plasma and platelets. Blood Transfus 2009;7(2):132–150. DOI: 10.2450/2009.0005-09.
  53. DeSimone RA, Nellis ME, Goel R, et al. Cryoprecipitate indications and patterns of use in the pediatric intensive care unit: inappropriate transfusions and lack of standardization. Transfusion 2016;56(8):1960–1964. DOI: 10.1111/trf.13649.
  54. Amelio GS, Raffaeli G, Amodeo I, et al. Hemostatic evaluation with viscoelastic coagulation monitor: A NICU experience. Front Pediatr 2022;10:910646. DOI: 10.3389/fped.2022.910646.
  55. Schott NJ, Emery SP, Garbee C, et al. Thromboelastography in term neonates. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018;31(19):2599–2604. DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1349747.
  56. Katsaras G, Sokou R, Tsantes AG, et al. The use of thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in neonates: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr 2021;180(12):3455–3470. DOI: 10.1007/s00431-021-04154-4.
  57. Fluger I, Maderova K, Simek M, et al. Comparison of functional fibrinogen assessment using thromboelastography with the standard von Clauss method. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2012;156(3):260–261. DOI: 10.5507/bp.2011.035.
  58. de Moerloose P, Casini A, Neerman–Arbez M. Congenital fibrinogen disorders: An update. Semin Thromb Hemost 2013;39(6):585–595. DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1349222.
  59. Neerman–Arbez M, de Moerloose P, Casini A. Laboratory and senetic investigation of mutations accounting for congenital fibrinogen disorders. Semin Thromb Hemost 2016;42(4):356–365. DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1571340.
  60. Sheridan BL, Pinkerton PH. Von Willebrand's syndrome with abnormal platelet aggregation correctable by cryoprecipitate. Br J Haematol 1980;45(2):353–355. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.1980.tb07154.x.
  61. Weyand AC, Flood VH. Von Willebrand disease: Current status of diagnosis and management. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2021;35(6):1085–1101. DOI: 10.1016/j.hoc.2021.07.004.
  62. Hanna WT, Slywka J, Dent J, et al. 1-Deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin and cryoprecipitate in variant von Willebrand disease. Am J Hematol 1985;20(2):169–173. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.2830200210.
  63. Krizek DM, Rick ME, Williams SB, et al. Cryoprecipitate transfusion in variant von Willebrand's disease and thrombocytopenia. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98(4):484–486. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-98-4-484.
  64. Weinstein M, Deykin D. Comparison of factor VIII-related von Willebrand factor proteins prepared from human cryoprecipitate and factor VIII concentrate. Blood 1979;53(6):1095–1105. PMID: 312667.
  65. Mathews V, Srivastava A, Nair SC, et al. Haemostasis with cryoprecipitate in patients undergoing surgery for severe von Willebrand disease. Natl Med J India. 2000;13(4):188–190. PMID: 110026.
  66. Karimi M, Peyvandi F, Naderi M, et al. Factor XIII deficiency diagnosis: Challenges and tools. Int J Lab Hematol 2018;40(1):3–11. DOI: 10.1111/ijlh.12756.
  67. Kasper CK, Myhre BA, McDonald JD, et al. Determinants of factor VIII recovery in cryoprecipitate. Transfusion 1975;15(4):312–322. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1975.15476034550.x.
  68. Kletzel M, Charlton R, Becton D, et al. Cryoprecipitate: A safe factor VIII replacement. Lancet 1987;1(8541):1093–1094. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(87)90522-8.
  69. Veldman A, Fischer D, Nold MF, et al. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in term and preterm neonates. Semin Thromb Hemost 2010;36(4):419–428. DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1254050.
  70. Hesselvik F, Brodin B, Carlsson C, et al. Cryoprecipitate infusion fails to improve organ function in septic shock. Crit Care Med. 1987;15(5):475–483. DOI: 10.1097/00003246-198705000-00004.
  71. Hoffman M, Koepke JA, Widmann FK. Fibrinogen content of low-volume cryoprecipitate. Transfusion 1987;27(4):356–358. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.1987.27487264748.x.
  72. British Committee for Standards in Haemetology, Stainsby D, MacLennan S, et al. Guidelines on the management of massive blood loss. Br J Haematol 2006;135(5):634–441. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06355.x.
  73. Christensen RD, Baer VL, Lambert DK, et al. Reference intervals for common coagulation tests of preterm infants (CME). Transfusion 2014;54(3):627–632:quiz 626. DOI: 10.1111/trf.12322.
  74. Tapper D, Lack EE. Teratomas in infancy and childhood. A 54-year experience at the children's hospital medical center. Ann Surg 1983;198(3):398–410. DOI: 10.1097/00000658-198309000-00016.
  75. Murphy JJ, Blair GK, Fraser GC. Coagulopathy associated with large sacrococcygeal teratomas. J Pediatr Surg 1992;27(10):1308–1310. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3468(92)90282-c.
  76. Girwalkar- Bagle A, Thatte WS, Gulia P. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: A case report and review of literature. Anaesth Pain Intensive Care 2014;18(4):449–451.
  77. Curry N, Rourke C, Davenport R, et al. Early cryoprecipitate for major haemorrhage in trauma: a randomised controlled feasibility trial. Br J Anaesth 2015;115(1):76–83. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aev134.
  78. Cushing MM, Fitzgerald MM, Harris RM, et al. Influence of cryoprecipitate, factor XIII, and fibrinogen concentrate on hyperfibrinolysis. Transfusion 2017;57(10):2502–2510. DOI: 10.1111/trf.14259.
  79. Gaitanidis A, Sinyard RT III, Nederpelt CJ, et al. Lower mortality with cryoprecipitate during massive transfusion in penetrating but not blunt trauma. J Surg Res 2022;269:94–102. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2021.07.027.
  80. Ho D, Chan E, Campbell D, et al. Targeted cryoprecipitate transfusion in severe traumatic haemorrhage. Injury 2020;51(9):1949–1955. DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2020.05.044.
  81. Tama MA, Stone ME Jr., Blumberg SM, et al. Association of cryoprecipitate use with survival after major trauma in children receiving massive transfusion. JAMA Surg 2021;156(5):453–460. DOI: 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.7199.
  82. Grocott HP, Jones PM. Fibrinogen concentrate compared to cryoprecipitate to reduce transfusion in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: How confident can we be? Anesth Analg 2020;131(2):e83–e84. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004885.
  83. Hensley NB, Mazzeffi MA. Pro–con debate: Fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate for treatment of acquired hypofibrinogenemia in cardiac surgical patients. Anesth Analg 2021;133(1):19–28. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005513.
  84. Tirotta CF, Lagueruela RG, Gupta A, et al. A randomized pilot trial assessing the role of human fibrinogen concentrate in decreasing cryoprecipitate use and blood loss in infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Pediatr Cardiol 2022;43(7):1444–1454. DOI: 10.1007/s00246-022-02866-4.
  85. Yang S, Williams B, Kaczorowski D, et al. Overt disseminated intravascular coagulation with severe hypofibrinogenemia during veno–venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Extra Corpor Technol 2022;54(2):148–152. DOI: 10.1182/ject-148-152.
  86. Nellis ME, Vasovic LV, Goel R, et al. Epidemiology of the use of hemostatic agents in children supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A pediatric health information system database study. Front Pediatr 2021;9:673613. DOI: 10.3389/fped.2021.673613.
  87. Surti J, Jain I, Mishra A, et al. Venoarterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and blood component usage in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: Single centre experience. Ann Card Anaesth 2021;24(2):203–208. DOI: 10.4103/aca.ACA_112_19.
  88. Karam O, Nellis ME. Transfusion management for children supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Transfusion 2021;61(3):660–664. DOI: 10.1111/trf.16272.
  89. Karam O, Goel R, Dalton H, et al. Epidemiology of hemostatic transfusions in children supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Crit Care Med 2020;48(8):e698–e705. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004417.
  90. Le Guennec L, Cholet C, Huang F, et al. Ischemic and hemorrhagic brain injury during venoarterial–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Ann Intensive Care 2018;8(1):129. DOI: 10.1186/s13613-018-0475-6.
  91. Doymaz S, Zinger M, Sweberg T. Risk factors associated with intracranial hemorrhage in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension on ECMO. J Intensive Care 2015;3(1):6. DOI: 10.1186/s40560-015-0071-x.
  92. Crighton GL, Huisman EJ. Pediatric fibrinogen Part II: Overview of indications for fibrinogen use in critically ill children. Front Pediatr 2021;9:647680. DOI: 10.3389/fped.2021.647680.
  93. Jackson R, Roberts EA. Identification of neonatal liver failure and perinatal hemochromatosis in Canada. Paediatr Child Health 2001;6(5):248–250. DOI: 10.1093/pch/6.5.248.
  94. French CJ, Bellomo R, Angus P. Cryoprecipitate for the correction of coagulopathy associated with liver disease. Anaesth Intensive Care 2003;31(4):357–361. DOI: 10.1177/0310057X0303100403.
  95. Gerlach H, Rossaint R, Slama K, et al. No requirement for cryoprecipitate or platelet transfusion during liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 1993;25(2):1813–1816. PMID: 7682354.
  96. Marlar RA, Neumann A. Neonatal purpura fulminans due to homozygous protein C or protein S deficiencies. Semin Thromb Hemost 1990;16(4):299–309. DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1002683.
  97. de Terlizzi M, Bonifazi E, Toma MG, et al. Kasabach–Merritt syndrome: Successful management of coagulopathy with heparin and cryoprecipitate. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1988;5(4):325–328. DOI: 10.3109/08880018809037374.
  98. Stahl RL, Henderson JM, Hooks MA, et al. Therapy of the Kasabach–Merritt syndrome with cryoprecipitate plus intra-arterial thrombin and aminocaproic acid. Am J Hematol 1991;36(4):272–274. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.2830360409.
  99. Warrell RP Jr, Kempin SJ. Treatment of severe coagulopathy in the Kasabach–Merritt syndrome with aminocaproic acid and cryoprecipitate. N Engl J Med 1985;313(5):309–312. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198508013130507.
  100. Nascimento B, Goodnough LT, Levy JH. Cryoprecipitate therapy. Br J Anaesth 2014;113(6):922–934. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aeu158.
  101. Burman D, Hodson AK, Wood CB, et al. Acute anaphylaxis, pulmonary oedema, and intravascular haemolysis due to cryoprecipitate. Arch Dis Child 1973;48(6):483–485. DOI: 10.1136/adc.48.6.483.
  102. Evatt B, Austin H, Leon G, et al. Hemophilia treatment. Predicting the long-term risk of HIV exposure by cryoprecipitate. Haemophilia 2000;6(Suppl. 1):128–132. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2516.2000.00057.x.
  103. Evatt BL, Austin H, Leon G, et al. Haemophilia therapy: Assessing the cumulative risk of HIV exposure by cryoprecipitate. Haemophilia 1999;5(5):295–300. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2516.1999.00317.x.
  104. Evensen SA, Ulstrup J, Skaug K, et al. HIV infection in Norwegian haemophiliacs: The prevalence of antibodies against HIV in haemophiliacs treated with lyophilized cryoprecipitate from volunteer donors. Eur J Haematol 1987;39(1):44–48. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.1987.tb00162.x.
  105. Faber JC, Epstein J, Burnouf T. Improving haemophilia therapy in developing countries: Virus–safe cryoprecipitate. Vox Sang 2019;114(6):635–636. DOI: 10.1111/vox.12794.
  106. Gabra GS, Crawford RJ, Mitchell R. Factor VIII cryoprecipitate and hepatitis risk. Lancet 1982;2(8309):1220. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(82)91237-5.
  107. Kamyszek RW, Foster MW, Evans BA, et al. The effect of pathogen inactivation on cryoprecipitate: A functional and quantitative evaluation. Blood Transfus 2020;18(6):454–464. DOI: 10.2450/2020.0077-20.
  108. Lee CA, Kernoff PB, Karayiannis P, et al. Acute fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis leading to chronic active hepatitis after treatment with cryoprecipitate. Gut 1985;26(6):639–641. DOI: 10.1136/gut.26.6.639.
  109. Manzin A, Solforosi L, Candela M, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and mixed cryoglobulinaemia: Assessment of HCV RNA copy numbers in supernatant, cryoprecipitate and non-liver cells. J Viral Hepat 1996;3(6):285–292. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.1996.tb00100.x.
  110. Ramirez–Arcos S, Jenkins C, Sheffield WP. Bacteria can proliferate in thawed cryoprecipitate stored at room temperature for longer than 4 h. Vox Sang 2017;112(5):477–479. DOI: 10.1111/vox.12517.
  111. Wagner SJ, Hapip CA, Abel L. Bacterial safety of extended room temperature storage of thawed cryoprecipitate. Transfusion 2019;59(11):3549–3550. DOI: 10.1111/trf.15472.
  112. Gerstein HC, Fanning MM, Read SE, et al. AIDS in a patient with hemophilia receiving mainly cryoprecipitate. Can Med Assoc J 1984;131(1):45–47. PMID: 6428732.
  113. Yang L, Stanworth S, Baglin T. Cryoprecipitate: An outmoded treatment? Transfus Med 2012;22(5):315–320. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3148.2012.01181.x.
  114. Goldfinger D, Sifuentes J, Ziman A. Are current regulations for quality control of cryoprecipitate still appropriate for the 21st century? Transfusion 2014;54(12):3254–3255. DOI:10.1111/trf.12916.
  115. Foster PA. A perspective on the use of FVIII concentrates and cryoprecipitate prophylactically in surgery or therapeutically in severe bleeds in patients with von Willebrand disease unresponsive to DDAVP: Results of an international survey. On behalf of the Subcommittee on von Willebrand Factor of the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the ISTH. Thromb Haemost 1995;74(5):1370–1378. PMID: 8607125.
  116. Tkach EK, Mackley A, Brooks A, et al. Cryoprecipitate transfusions in the neonatal intensive care unit: A performance improvement study to decrease donor exposure. Transfusion 2018;58(5):1206–1209. DOI: 10.1111/trf.14555.
  117. Kruse RL, Neally M, Cho BC, et al. Cryoprecipitate utilization patterns observed with a required prospective approval process vs electronic dosing guidance. Am J Clin Pathol 2020;154(3):362–368. DOI: 10.1093/ajcp/aqaa042.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.