Register      Login

VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Tasked for Compassion: Initiating Reproductive Grief Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Kathryn R Grauerholz

Keywords : Bereavement, Fetal demise, Miscarriage, Neonatal intensive care unit, Perinatal loss, Reproductive grief, Stillbirth

Citation Information : Grauerholz KR. Tasked for Compassion: Initiating Reproductive Grief Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. 2022; 1 (2):227-232.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11002-0026

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 05-07-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


The experience of parenting a premature or ill infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be overwhelming and traumatic. Parents who have previously endured a reproductive loss may find that an accumulation of escalating distress related to nurturing a neonate while receiving care in intensive care compounded with lingering grief from a prior perinatal loss can overwhelm their capability to cope. The ambiguous nature of perinatal loss and societal disenfranchisement of the grief often results in a prolonged or complicated bereavement trajectory which can inhibit bonding, mental health, and physical wellness. The frequent contact and perinatal conversations between parents and clinicians provide opportunities for essential discussions about emotional vigor, grief, and bereavement. A review of the literature and current research found that initiating conversations and care modalities that facilitate Worden's “tasks of grieving” can foster a necessary healing pattern for bereaved parents. These efforts will theoretically nurture parent–child bonding and promote desirable neonatal outcomes.

  1. Rasmark Roepke E, Christiansen OB, Källén K, et al. Women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss are a high-risk population for adverse obstetrical outcome: a retrospective cohort study. J Clin Med 2021;10(2):179. DOI: 10.3390/jcm10020179.
  2. Ticconi C, Pietropolli A, Specchia M, et al. Pregnancy-related complications in women with recurrent pregnancy loss: a prospective cohort study. J Clin Med 2020;9(9):2833. DOI: 10.3390/jcm9092833.
  3. Penny KA, Friedman SH, Halstead GM. Psychiatric support for mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol 2015;35(6): 451–457. DOI: 10.1038/jp.2014.221.
  4. Carolan M, Frankowska D. Advanced maternal age and adverse perinatal outcome: a review of the evidence. Midwifery 2011;27(6): 793–801. DOI: 10.1016/j.midw.2010.07.006.
  5. Leader J, Bajwa A, Lanes A, et al. The effect of very advanced maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2018;40(9):1208–1218. DOI: 10.1016/j.jogc.2017.10.027.
  6. Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P, Intarut N, et al. Advanced maternal age and pregnancy outcomes: a multicountry assessment. Br J Obstet Gynecol 2014;121(Suppl 1):49–56. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12659.
  7. Molina-García L, Hidalgo-Ruiz M, Cámara-Jurado AM, et al. Newborn health indicators associated with maternal age during first pregnancy. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16(18):3448. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16183448.
  8. Sydsjö G, Lindell Pettersson M, Bladh M, et al. Evaluation of risk factors’ importance on adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in women aged 40 years or older. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019;19(1):92. DOI: 10.1186/s12884-019-2239-1.
  9. Carter BS, Parravicini E, Benini F, et al. Editorial: perinatal palliative care comes of age. Front Pediatr 2021;9:709383. DOI: 10.3389/fped.2021.709383.
  10. Hammond J, Wool C, Parravicini E. Assessment of healthcare professionals’ self-perceived competence in perinatal/neonatal palliative care after a 3-day training course. Front Pediatr 2020;8:571335. DOI: 10.3389/fped.2020.571335.
  11. Cortezzo DE, Sanders MR, Brownell EA, et al. End-of-life care in the neonatal intensive care unit: experiences of staff and parents. Am J Perinatol 2015;32(8):713–724. DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1395475.
  12. Grauerholz KR, Fredenburg M, Jones PT, et al. Fostering vicarious resilience for perinatal palliative care professionals. Front Pediatr 2020;8:572933. DOI: 10.3389/fped.2020.572933.
  13. Hall SL, Cross J, Selix NW, et al. Recommendations for enhancing psychosocial support of NICU parents through staff education and support. J Perinatol 2015;35(Suppl 1):S29–S36. DOI: 10.1038/jp.2015.147.
  14. Haug S, Farooqi S, Wilson CG, et al. Survey on neonatal end-of-life comfort care guidelines across America. J Pain Symptom Manage 2018;55(3):979–984.e2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.10.023.
  15. Hughes KH, Goodall UA. Perinatal bereavement care: are we meeting families’ needs? Br J Midwif 2013;21(4):248–253. DOI: 10.12968/bjom.2013.21.4.248.
  16. Mancini A, Uthaya S, Beardsley C, et al. Practical Guidance for the Management of Palliative Care on Neonatal Units. London: Chelsea and Westminster Hospital; 2014.
  17. Wright V, Prasun MA, Hilgenberg C. Why is end-of-life care delivery sporadic? A quantitative look at the barriers to and facilitators of providing end-of-life care in the neonatal intensive care unit. Adv Neonatal Care 2011;11(1):29–36. DOI: 10.1097/ANC.0b013e3182085642.
  18. Grauerholz KR, Berry SN, Capuano RM, et al. Uncovering prolonged grief reactions subsequent to a reproductive loss: implications for the primary care provider. Front Psychol 2021;12:673050. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.673050.
  19. American College of Obstetricians, and Gynecologists’ Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG practice bulletin, number 200: early pregnancy loss. Obstet Gynecol 2018;132(5):e197–e207. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002899.
  20. Brier N. Grief following miscarriage: a comprehensive review of the literature. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2008;17(3):451–464. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2007.0505.
  21. Due C, Chiarolli S, Riggs DW. The impact of pregnancy loss on men's health and wellbeing: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017;17(1):380. DOI: 10.1186/s12884-017-1560-9.
  22. Hutti MH, Myers J, Hall LA, et al. Predicting grief intensity after recent perinatal loss. J Psychosom Res 2017;101:128–134. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.07.016.
  23. Kersting A, Wagner B. Complicated grief after perinatal loss. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2012;14(2):187–194. DOI: 10.31887/DCNS.2012.14.2/akersting.
  24. Mehran P, Simbar M, Shams J, et al. History of perinatal loss and maternal-fetal attachment behaviors. Women Birth 2013;26(3): 185–189. DOI: 10.1016/j.wombi.2013.04.005.
  25. Meaney S, Corcoran P, Spillane N, et al. Experience of miscarriage: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. BMJ Open 2017;7(3):e011382. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011382.
  26. Bloom K, Delmore-Ko P, Masataka N, et al. Possible self as parent in Canadian, Italian, and Japanese young adults. Canadian J Behav Sci 1999;31(3), 198–207. DOI: 10.1037/h0087088.
  27. Hadley E, Stuart J. The expression of parental identifications in lesbian mothers’ work and family arrangements. Psychoanal Psychol 2009;26(1):42–68. DOI: 10.1037/a0014676.
  28. Jaffe J. Reproductive trauma: psychotherapy for pregnancy loss and infertility clients from a reproductive story perspective. Psychotherapy (Chic) 2017;54(4):380–385. DOI: 10.1037/pst0000125.
  29. Jaffe J, Diamond MO. Reproductive Trauma: Psychotherapy with Infertility and Pregnancy Loss Clients Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2010.
  30. Rubin R. Maternal tasks in pregnancy. J Adv Nurs 1976;1(5):367–376. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.1976.tb00921.x.
  31. Burden C, Bradley S, Storey C, et al. From grief, guilt pain and stigma to hope and pride–a systematic review and meta-analysis of mixed-method research of the psychosocial impact of stillbirth. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016;16:1. DOI: 10.1186/s12884-016-0800-8.
  32. Leon IG. The psychoanalytic conceptualization of perinatal loss: a multidimensional model. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149(11):1464–1472. DOI: 10.1176/ajp.149.11.1464.
  33. Lin SX, Lasker JN. Patterns of grief reaction after pregnancy loss. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1996;66(2):262–271. DOI: 10.1037/h0080177.
  34. Berry SN, Severtsen B, Davis A, et al. The impact of anencephaly on parents: a mixed-methods study [published online ahead of print, 2021 Apr 17]. Death Stud 2021:1–10. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2021.1909669.
  35. Krosch DJ, Shakespeare-Finch J. Grief, traumatic stress, and posttraumatic growth in women who have experienced pregnancy loss. Psychol Trauma 2017;9(4):425–433. DOI: 10.1037/tra0000183.
  36. Bardos J, Hercz D, Friedenthal J, et al. A national survey on public perceptions of miscarriage. Obstet Gynecol 2015;125(6):1313–1320. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000859.
  37. Barr P. Guilt- and shame-proneness and the grief of perinatal bereavement. Psychol Psychother 2004;77(Pt 4):493–510. DOI: 10.1348/1476083042555442.
  38. Duncan C, Cacciatore J. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on self-blame, guilt, and shame. Omega (Westport) 2015;71(4):312–342. DOI: 10.1177/0030222815572604.
  39. Toedter LJ, Lasker JN, Alhadeff JM. The perinatal grief scale: development and initial validation. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1988;58(3):435–449. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.1988.tb01604.x.
  40. Wojnar DM, Swanson KM, Adolfsson AS. Confronting the inevitable: a conceptual model of miscarriage for use in clinical practice and research. Death Stud 2011;35(6):536–558. DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2010.536886.
  41. Kokou-Kpolou K, Megalakaki O, Nieuviarts N. Persistent depressive and grief symptoms for up to 10 years following perinatal loss: involvement of negative cognitions. J Affect Disord 2018;241: 360–366. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.063.
  42. Blackmore ER, Côté-Arsenault D, Tang W, et al. Previous prenatal loss as a predictor of perinatal depression and anxiety. Br J Psychiatry 2011;198(5):373–378. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.083105.
  43. McCarthy FP, Moss-Morris R, Khashan AS, et al. Previous pregnancy loss has an adverse impact on distress and behaviour in subsequent pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gyn 2015;122(13):1757–1764. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.13233.
  44. Meredith P, Wilson T, Branjerdporn G, et al. “Not just a normal mum”: a qualitative investigation of a support service for women who are pregnant subsequent to perinatal loss. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017;17:6. DOI: 10.1186/s12884-016-1200-9.
  45. Üstündağ-Budak AM, Larkin M, Harris G, et al. Mothers’ accounts of their stillbirth experiences and of their subsequent relationships with their living infant: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2015;15:263. DOI: 10.1186/s12884-015-0700-3.
  46. Infurna FJ, Luthar SS. Re-evaluating the notion that resilience is commonplace: a review and distillation of directions for future research, practice, and policy. Clin Psychol Rev 2018;65:43–56. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2018.07.003.
  47. Harris J. A unique grief. Int J Childbirth Educ 2015;30:82–84.
  48. Lang A, Fleiszer AR, Duhamel F, et al. Perinatal loss and parental grief: the challenge of ambiguity and disenfranchised grief. Omega (Westport) 2011;63:183–196. DOI: 10.2190/OM.63.2.e.
  49. DeGroot JM, Vik TA. Disenfranchised grief following a traumatic birth. J Loss Trauma 2017;22(4):346–356. DOI: 10.1080/15325024. 2017.1284519.
  50. Hlavsa D. My First Son: A Pure Memory. The New York Times. September 19, 2008.
  51. Berry SN, Marko T, Oneal G. Qualitative interpretive metasynthesis of parents’ experiences of perinatal loss. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2021;50(1):20–29. DOI: 10.1016/j.jogn.2020.10.004.
  52. Baldwin DV. Primitive mechanisms of trauma response: an evolutionary perspective on trauma-related disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2013;37(8):1549–1566. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.06.004.
  53. Johnson S, Riley A, Granger D, et al. The science of early life toxic stress for pediatric practice and advocacy. Pediatrics 2013;131(2):319–327. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-0469.
  54. Sanders MR, Hall SL. Trauma-informed care in the newborn intensive care unit: promoting safety, security and connectedness. J Perinatol 2018;38(1):3–10. DOI: 10.1038/jp.2017.124.
  55. Shonkoff J, Boyce W, McEwen B. Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. JAMA 2009;301(21):2252–2259. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2009.754.
  56. Ginwright, S. The future of healing: shifting from trauma-informed care to healing centered engagement; 2018. Retrieved on July 30, 2021 at:
  57. Raja S, Hasnain M, Hoersch M, et al. Trauma informed care in medicine: current knowledge and future research directions. Fam Community Health 2015;38(3):216–226. DOI: 10.1097/FCH.0000000000000071.
  58. Büchi S, Mörgeli H, Schnyder U, et al. Shared or discordant grief in couples 2-6 years after the death of their premature baby: effects on suffering and posttraumatic growth. Psychosomatics 2009;50(2): 123–130. DOI: 10.1176/appi.psy.50.2.123.
  59. Callister LC. Perinatal loss: a family perspective. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2006;20(3):227–236. DOI: 10.1097/00005237-200607000-00009.
  60. Sun S, Li J, Ma Y, et al. Effects of a family-support programme for pregnant women with foetal abnormalities requiring pregnancy termination: a randomized controlled trial in China. Int J Nurs Pract 2018;24(1):e12614. DOI: 10.1111/ijn.12614.
  61. Van Dinter MC, Graves L. Managing adverse birth outcomes: helping parents and families cope. Am Fam Physician 2012;85(9):900–904. PMID: 22612185.
  62. Bellhouse C, Temple-Smith M, Watson S, et al. “The loss was traumatic… some healthcare providers added to that”: women's experiences of miscarriage. Women Birth 2019;32(2):137–146. DOI: 10.1016/j.wombi.2018.06.006.
  63. Brann M, Bute JJ, Scott SF. Qualitative assessment of bad news delivery practices during miscarriage diagnosis. Qual Health Res 2020;30(2):258–267. DOI: 10.1177/1049732319874038.
  64. Bute JJ, Brann M. Tensions and contradictions in interns’ communication about unexpected pregnancy loss. Health Commun 2020;35(5):529–537. DOI: 10.1080/10410236.2019.1570429.
  65. Davoudian T, Gibbins K, Cirino NH. Perinatal loss: the impact on maternal mental health. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2021;76(4):223. DOI: 10.1097/OGX.0000000000000874.
  66. Markin RD, Zilcha-Mano S. Cultural processes in psychotherapy for perinatal loss: breaking the cultural taboo against perinatal grief. Psychotherapy 2018;55:20–26. DOI: 10.1037/pst0000122.
  67. Inati V, Matic M, Phillips C, et al. A survey of the experiences of families with bereavement support services following a perinatal loss. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2018;58(1):54–63. DOI: 10.1111/ajo.12661.
  68. Capitulo KL. Evidence for healing interventions with perinatal bereavement. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2005;30(6):389–396. DOI: 10.1097/00005721-200511000-00007.
  69. Côté-Arsenault D, Denney-Koelsch E. “Have no regrets:” Parents’ experiences and developmental tasks in pregnancy with a lethal fetal diagnosis. Soc Sci Med 2016;154:100–109. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.02.033.
  70. Kenner C, Press J, Ryan D. Recommendations for palliative and bereavement care in the NICU: a family-centered integrative approach. J Perinatol 2015;35(Suppl 1):S19–S23. DOI: 10.1038/jp.2015.145.
  71. Grimshaw JM, Shirran L, Thomas R, et al. Changing provider behavior: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions. Med Care 2001;39(8 suppl 2):II2–45.
  72. Sweeney C, O'Sullivan E, McCarthy M. Keeping it real: exploring an interdisciplinary breaking bad news role-play as an integrative learning opportunity. J Scholarship Teach Learn 2015;15(2):14–32. DOI: 10.14434/josotl.v15i2.13262.
  73. Worden JW. Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy: A Handbook for the Mental Health Practitioner, 5th Ed. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company; 2018.
  74. Geller PA, Psaros C, Kornfield SL. Satisfaction with pregnancy loss aftercare: are women getting what they want? Arch Women's Ment Health 2010;13(2):111–124. DOI: 10.1007/s00737-010-0147-5.
  75. Wool C. Systematic review of the literature: parental outcomes after diagnosis of fetal anomaly. Adv Neonatal Care 2011;11(3):182–192. DOI: 10.1097/ANC.0b013e31821bd92d.
  76. Flenady V, Boyle F, Koopmans L, et al. Meeting the needs of parents after a stillbirth or neonatal death [published correction appears in BJOG 2015May;122(6):891] [published correction appears in BJOG (201) May;122(6):891]. BJOG 2014;121(Suppl 4):137–140. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.13009.
  77. Wool C, Côté-Arsenault D, Perry Black B, et al. Provision of services in perinatal palliative care: a multicenter survey in the United States. J Palliat Med 2016;19(3):279–285. DOI: 10.1089/jpm.2015.0266.
  78. Lim C, Cheng N. Clinician's role of psychological support in helping parents and families with pregnancy loss. J Aust Tradit Med Soc 2011;17(4):215–217. ISSN: 1326–3390; OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 4934660342.
  79. Rowlands IJ, Lee C. “The silence was deafening”: social and health service support after miscarriage. J Reprod Infant Psychol 2010;28(3):274–286. DOI: 10.1080/02646831003587346.
  80. Séjourné N, Callahan S, Chabrol H. Support following miscarriage: what women want. J Reprod Infant Psychol 2010;28(4):403–411. DOI: 10.1080/02646830903487375.
  81. Adolfsson A. Women's well-being improves after missed miscarriage with more active support and application of Swanson's Caring Theory. Psychol Res Behav Manag 2011;4:1–9. DOI: 10.2147/PRBM.S15431.
  82. O'Leary J, Thorwick C. Fathers’ perspectives during pregnancy, postperinatal loss. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2006;35:78–86. DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00017.x.
  83. Hawthorne DM, Youngblut JM, Brooten D. Parent spirituality, grief, and mental health at 1 and 3 months after their infant's/child's death in an Intensive Care Unit. J Pediatr Nurs 2016;31(1):73–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2015.07.008.
  84. Johnson O, Langford RW. Proof of life: a protocol for pregnant women who experience pre-20-week perinatal loss. Crit Care Nurs Q 2010;33(3):204–211. DOI: 10.1097/CNQ.0b013e3181e65f3b.
  85. Koopmans L, Wilson T, Cacciatore J, et al. Support for mothers, fathers and families after perinatal death. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;6:CD000452. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000452.pub3.
  86. Willer EK, Krebs E, Castaneda N, et al. Our babies[’] count[er story]: a narrative ethnography of a baby loss remembrance walk ritual. Commun Monogr 2020;87(2):179–199. DOI: 10.1080/03637751.2019.1666289.
  87. Chichester M. Requesting perinatal autopsy: multicultural considerations. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2007;32(2):81–88. DOI: 10.1097/
  88. Kalu AF. Women's experiences of utilizing religious and spiritual beliefs as coping resources after miscarriage. Religions 2019;10(3):185. DOI: 10.3390/rel10030185.
  89. Levick J, Fannon J, Bodemann J, et al. NICU Bereavement care and follow-up support for families and staff. Adv Neonatal Care 2017;17(6):451–460. DOI: 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000435.
  90. deMontigny F, Verdon C, Meunier S, et al. Women's persistent depressive and perinatal grief symptoms following a miscarriage: the role of childlessness and satisfaction with healthcare services. Arch Womens Ment Health 2017;20(5):655–662. DOI: 10.1007/s00737-017-0742-9.
  91. Corbett-Owen C, Kruger L. The health system and emotional care: validating the many meanings of spontaneous pregnancy loss. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;19(6):CD000452.
  92. González-Castroagudín S, Suárez-López I, Polanco-Teijo F, et al. Papel de la matrona en el manejo del duelo perinatal y neonatal. Cad Aten Primaria 2013;19:113–117 (accessed online February 17 2022)
  93. van Aerde J, Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS). Guidelines for health care professionals supporting families experiencing a perinatal loss. Paediatr Child Health 2001;6(7):469–490.
  94. Chichester M. Multicultural issues in perinatal loss. AWHONN Lifelines 2005;9(4):312–320. DOI: 10.1177/1091592305280875.
  95. Norwood T, Boulton J. Reconciling the uniquely embodied grief of perinatal death: a narrative approach. Religions 2021;12(11):976. DOI: 10.3390/rel12110976.
  96. Swanson KM, Chen HT, Graham JC, et al. Resolution of depression and grief during the first year after miscarriage: a randomized controlled clinical trial of couples-focused interventions. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2009;18(8):1245–1257. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2008.1202.
  97. Nelson DP, Polst G. An interdisciplinary team approach to evidence-based improvement in family-centered care. Crit Care Nurs Q 2008;31(2):110–118. DOI: 10.1097/01.CNQ.0000314471.26259.5c.
  98. Smart CJ, Smith BL. A transdisciplinary team approach to perinatal loss. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2013;38(2):110–114. DOI: 10.1097/NMC.0b013e318270db45.
  99. Wool C, Catlin A. Perinatal bereavement and palliative care offered throughout the healthcare system. Ann Palliat Med 2019;8 (Suppl 1):S22–S29. DOI: 10.21037/apm.2018.11.03.
  100. Gold KJ. Navigating care after a baby dies: a systematic review of parent experiences with health providers. J Perinatol 2007;27(4): 230–237. DOI: 10.1038/
  101. Fernández-Férez A, Ventura-Miranda MI, Camacho-Ávila M, et al. Nursing interventions to facilitate the grieving process after perinatal death: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18(11):5587. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18115587.
  102. Mecdi Kaydirak M, Aslan E. Efficacy of nursing support in the pre- and postmedical termination of pregnancy phases: a randomized study. Omega (Westport) 2021;84(1):51–68. DOI: 10.1177/0030222819877791.
  103. Reilly-Smorawski B, Armstrong AV, Catlin, EA. Bereavement support for couples following death of a baby: program development and a 14-year exit analysis. Death Stud 2002;26(1) 21–37. DOI: 10.1080/07481180210145.
  104. DiMarco MA, Menke EM, McNamara T. Evaluating a support group for perinatal loss. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2001;26(3):135–140. DOI: 10.1097/00005721-200105000-00008.
  105. Bacidore V, Warren N, Chaput C, et al. A collaborative framework for managing pregnancy loss in the emergency department. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2009;38(6):730–738. DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01075.x.
  106. Diamond DJ, Diamond MO. Parenthood after reproductive loss: How psychotherapy can help with postpartum adjustment and parent–infant attachment. Psychotherapy 2017;54(4), 373–379. DOI: 10.1037/pst0000127.
  107. Farren J, Jalmbrant M, Falconieri N, et al. Posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression following miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020;222(4):367.e1–367.e22. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.10.102.
  108. Baile WF, Buckman R, Lenzi R, et al. SPIKES-A six-step protocol for delivering bad news: application to the patient with cancer. Oncologist 2000;5(4):302–311. DOI: 10.1634/theoncologist.5-4-302.
  109. Brin DJ. The use of rituals in grieving for a miscarriage or stillbirth. Women Therapy 2004;27(3–4):123–132. DOI: 10.1300/J015v27n0309.
  110. Tseng YF, Hsu MT, Hsieh YT, et al. The meaning of rituals after a stillbirth: a qualitative study of mothers with a stillborn baby. J Clin Nurs 2018;27(5–6):1134–1142. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.14142.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.