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VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2024 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Abnormalities of Corpus Callosum and Other Interhemispheric Commissures

Akhil Maheshwari, Thierry AGM Huisman

Keywords : Axonal projections, Body, Commissural, Chorioallantoic placenta, Cortical layers eutherian mammals, Genu, Pyramidal neurons, Rostrum, White matter tracts

Citation Information : Maheshwari A, Huisman TA. Abnormalities of Corpus Callosum and Other Interhemispheric Commissures. 2024; 3 (2):139-156.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11002-0093

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 21-06-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Abstract

The two neocortical cerebral hemispheres are connected by white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum (CC), and the anterior and the hippocampal commissures. Complete agenesis of the CC is seen in about 7 persons per 1,000; the incidence in patients with developmental delay can be as high as 3%. In addition, many patients show a paucity, not complete absence, of commissural axons due to altered development. Others may develop secondary destruction of the CC following infarction, hemorrhage, trauma, and in some metabolic diseases. One notable structural feature in these patients with agenesis or hypogenesis of the CC are the Probst bundles (PBs), which are longitudinal, rostrocaudally oriented coiled white matter fascicles running alongside the lateral ventricles into the tapetum. The presence or absence of these PBs can affect the clinical presentation and outcome of these patients. Many patients with agenesis of the CC manifest with seizures within the first weeks of life. Others present with developmental delay and a multitude of neurological manifestations. The etiopathogenesis of agenesis of the CC is unknown and is still being investigated. These commissural defects can also be seen as a part of several genetic associations such as Aicardi syndrome, Andermann syndrome, Mowat-Wilson syndrome, and XLAG (X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia). As of now, no specific treatment is known for any of these conditions. Careful clinical and genetic evaluation of these patients is necessary for symptomatic management and for counseling the families. In this article, we present our clinical/imaging experience and have combined it with an extensive search of the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus. To avoid bias, keywords were identified from discussions in our group and from PubMed's Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) thesaurus.


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