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VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Intracranial Hemorrhage in Neonates: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

Ogtay Huseynov, Thierry AGM Huisman, Ahmed S Hassan, Roya Huseynova

Keywords : Epidural, Germinal matrix vasculature, Hemorrhagic stroke, Infant, Infection, Intraventricular, Newborn, Parenchymal, Subdural, Subarachnoid

Citation Information : Huseynov O, Huisman TA, Hassan AS, Huseynova R. Intracranial Hemorrhage in Neonates: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management. 2024; 3 (2):111-123.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11002-0097

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 21-06-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


The incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in newborn infants may be up to 1:2,000 spontaneous births, 1:850 vacuum extractions, and 1:650 forceps-assisted deliveries. Intracranial hemorrhage is frequently associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates as the perinatal period is a crucial window for brain development. In term neonates, ICH usually occurs during labor due to mechanical injury. On the other hand, preterm infants frequently develop ICH due to hemodynamic instability and fragility of the germinal matrix (GM) vasculature. Based on the location of the hemorrhage, ICH is usually described as epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, intraventricular, and parenchymal bleeds. The cause of neonatal ICH is multifactorial and includes hemorrhage related to prematurity, hemorrhagic stroke, infection, vascular malformations, bleeding disorders, and genetic causes. Iatrogenic coagulopathy during cardiopulmonary bypass/extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can also be a cause. Most patients can be managed without surgical intervention. Some symptomatic infants may need neurosurgical procedure(s) such as external ventricular drainage and/or ventriculoperitoneal shunt(s). The neurodevelopmental outcomes vary according to the maturation of the brain, etiology, place, and extent of the hemorrhage. Clinically concerning complications may include developmental delay, leukomalacia, convulsion, cerebral palsy, and other neurological disorders. In this article, we have reviewed the types, etiology, severity, and clinical outcomes of neonatal ICH.

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