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VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles



Gopal Nath

Keywords : Abi-associated enzymes, Abortive infection, Adsorption block, Bacteriophage, Bacteriophage exclusion system, Biofilms, Bradley's classification, Carjivirus communis, Caudovirales, Chromosomal islands, Contractile tails, Cosmids, CrAssphage, CRISPER-cas bacterial immune system, Darwinian principles, Double-stranded DNA, Destruction of phage DNA after injection, Diversity-generating retroelements, dsDNA, Endolysin, Enterobacteria P4-like prophages, ESKAPE, Evolutionary arms race, Glucosyl-hydroxymethylcytosine, Helper proteins, Human phageome, Hydroxymethylcytosine, Infant, Lactococcus phage c2, Lit activator gol peptide, Long non-contractile tails, Lytic cycle, Lysogenic cycle, Metagenomics, Mosaicism, MS2 coat, Mycoplasma phage P1, Myoviridae, Neonate, Newborn, P2-like prophages, Pasteurella phage F108, Penetration block, Phage display, Phagemid, Phage coevolution, Phage cocktail, Phage terminase small subunit, Phage anti-restriction-induced system, Phage ecology, Podoviridae, Polyphage, Prophage, Prokaryote

Citation Information : Nath G. Bacteriophages. 2023; 2 (4):297-309.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11002-0078

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 05-01-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Bacteriophages, viruses that invade bacterial cells, are the most abundant organisms in the biosphere. Phages include viruses with double-stranded DNA (most common), single-stranded DNA, single-stranded RNA, and double-stranded RNA (least common). Most virions (96%) are tailed; other types are cubic, filamentous, or pleomorphic. Phage genomes are diverse and pervasively mosaic owing to a high frequency of horizontal genetic exchange and recombinations. Phages may have lytic or lysogenic life cycles. They attach to specific bacteria and achieve killing by enzymes endolysins and holins, without affecting the commensal microflora because of host specificity. There is a constant “evolutionary arms race” which leads to competitive bacteria phage coevolution. Numerous diverse and sophisticated bacterial defense mechanisms are being developed to inhibit various stages of the phage life cycle. At the same time, phages have also evolved to overcome these bacterial defenses. Phage-based treatments are being developed where single phages, phage cocktails, phage-derived enzymes, phages in combination with antibiotics, and genetically modified phages might be useful. This can be useful in the treatment of infection with multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens and also for biofilm removal.

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