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VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Extrauterine Growth Restriction: Need for an Accurate Definition

Nitasha Bagga, Nalinikanta Panigrahi, Aaron Germain, Ilhama Namazova, Md Mozibur Rahman, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Akhil Maheshwari

Keywords : Body fat mass, Cohort of Indonesian PreTerm infants for long-term Outcomes study, Corrected gestational age, Delta-Z, Demographic factors, Extra-uterine growth restriction, Failure to thrive, Fenton growth chart, Genetic make-up, growth charts, Infant growth, Intra-uterine growth restriction, Intergrowth 21st charts, Infant feeding, Linear growth velocity, Maternal metabolism, Maternal and paternal anthropometrics, Medications, Newborn, Neonate, Neurodevelopmental outcomes, Neonatal morbidities, Placental health, Postnatal growth restriction, Postnatal malnutrition, Pre-conceptional nutritional status, Postnatal morbidities, Postnatal growth, Small for gestation, Term corrected age, Total caloric intake, Total metabolic activity, Weight gain velocity, Z-scores

Citation Information : Bagga N, Panigrahi N, Germain A, Namazova I, Rahman MM, Saugstad OD, Maheshwari A. Extrauterine Growth Restriction: Need for an Accurate Definition. 2023; 2 (3):198-202.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11002-0072

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-09-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Neonates show considerable variation in growth that can be recognized through serial measurements of basic variables such as weight, length, and head circumference. If possible, measurement of subcutaneous and total body fat mass can also be useful. These biometric measurements at birth may be influenced by demographics, maternal and paternal anthropometrics, maternal metabolism, preconceptional nutritional status, and placental health. Subsequent growth may depend on optimal feeding, total caloric intake, total metabolic activity, genetic makeup, postnatal morbidities, medications, and environmental conditions. For premature infants, these factors become even more important; poor in utero growth can be an important reason for spontaneous or induced preterm delivery. Later, many infants who have had intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and are born small for gestational age (SGA) continue to show suboptimal growth below the 10th percentile, a condition that has been defined as extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) or postnatal growth restriction (PNGR). More importantly, a subset of these growth-restricted infants may also be at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. There is a need for well-defined criteria to recognize EUGR/PNGR, so that correctional steps can be instituted in a timely fashion.

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