Citation Information :
Alam MZ, Tareq MR, Shapna DS, Maheshwari A, Sohel MH, Rehnuma N, Hamid K, Majumder MM. Epidemiological Study of Congenital Anomalies and Risk Factors in Newborn Infants at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh. 2023; 2 (3):185-190.
Background: Congenital anomalies are structural/functional defects in various organs (systems) that are apparent at birth. These anomalies originate prior to birth due to altered embryonic/fetal development. These are significant contributors to stillbirths/infant mortality over the world; the global variation in incidence is possibly related to regional differences in exposure to various etiological factors.
Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological profile of various congenital abnormalities in newborn infants in Bangladesh.
Materials and methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Central Medical College Hospital, Cumilla, Bangladesh. We recorded 100 consecutive congenital anomalies in 54,800 infant visits in our outpatient clinics. Data were collected from families after informed written consent.
Results: Out of the 100 infants with congenital anomalies, 69 infants were male and 31 were female (gender ratio 2.2:1). Congenital abnormalities were seen in the central nervous system (CNS) in 30, in the musculoskeletal system in 24, gastrointestinal in 24, cardiovascular in 13, and the genitourinary system in 9 infants. Thirty-eight infants had a history of antenatal exposure to radiation, and 35 of them to pesticides. Twenty-two were born to mothers with diabetes, and 18 to mothers with hypertension.
Conclusion: We identified antenatal exposure to radiation, pesticides, maternal diabetes, and maternal hypertension as important predisposing factors for congenital anomalies. Congenital anomalies of the CNS and musculoskeletal/gastrointestinal defects were seen most frequently. Identification of risk factors can help in designing appropriate interventions.
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