Newborn

Register      Login

SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT

FIND ARTICLE

Volume / Issue

Online First

Related articles

VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2022 ) > List of Articles

CASE SERIES

Neonatal Acute Liver Failure

Gurpreet Kaur Grewal, Horacio Osiovich, Richard Schreiber

Keywords : Diagnosis, Enterovirus, Gestational alloimmune liver disease, Hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis, Neonatal acute liver failure, Neonatal disease, Neonate

Citation Information : Grewal GK, Osiovich H, Schreiber R. Neonatal Acute Liver Failure. 2022; 1 (2):254-262.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11002-0029

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 05-07-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Acute liver failure is a rare event in the newborn period yet early recognition in the neonatal intensive care setting is essential for best outcome. Neonatal acute liver failure (NALF) is distinct from acute liver failure in older children and adults having different etiologies, presentation, and unique treatment interventions. There is a paucity of literature regarding NALF and several newly identified conditions merit discussion. Herein we report three cases of liver failure who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit and review the diagnostic approach and management of liver failure in this age group.


PDF Share
  1. Shanmugam NP, Bansal S, Greenough A, et al. Neonatal liver failure: etiologies and management-state of the art. Eur J Pediatr 2011;170(5):573–581. DOI: 10.1007/s00431-010-1309-1.
  2. Ciocca M, Alvarez F. Neonatal acute liver failure: a diagnosis challenge. Arch Argent Pediatr 2017;115(2):175–180. DOI: 10.5546/aap.2017.eng.175.
  3. El-Hattab AW, Scaglia F, Wong L-J. Deoxyguanosine kinase deficiency. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. Gene Reviews. Seattle (WA): University of Wshington, Seattle; 2016.
  4. Sundaram SS, Alonso EM, Narkewicz MR, et al., for Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Characterization and outcomes of young infants with acute liver failure. J Pediatr 2011;159:813–818. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.04.016.
  5. Taylor SA, Whitington PF. Neonatal acute liver failure. Clin Liver Transpl 2016;22(5): 677–685. DOI: 10.1002/lt.24433.
  6. Durand P, Debray D, Mandel R, et al. Acute liver failure in infancy: a 14-year experience of a pediatric liver transplantation center. J Pediatr 2001;139(6):871–876. DOI: 10.1067/mpd.2001.119989.
  7. Pan X, Kelly S, Melin-Aldana H, et al. Novel mechanism of fetal hepatocyte injury in congenital alloimmune hepatitis involves the terminal complement cascade. Hepatology 2010;51(6):2061–2068. DOI: 10.1002/hep.23581.
  8. Bonilla S, Prozialeck JD, Malladi P, et al. Neonatal iron overload and tissue siderosis due to gestational alloimmune liver disease. J Hepatol 2012;56(6):1351–1355. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2012.01.010.
  9. Hegarty R, Hadzic N, Gissen P, et al. Inherited metabolic disorders presenting as acute liver failure in newborns and young children: King's College Hospital experience. Eur J Pediatr 2015;174:1387–1392. DOI: 10.1007/s00431-015-2540-6.
  10. Laurendeau T, Hill JE, Manning GB. Idiopathic neonatal hemochromatosis in siblings. An inborn error of metabolism. Arch Pathol 1961;72:410–423. PMID: 14462830.
  11. Whitington PF, Padmini M. Neonatal hemochromatosis: is it an alloimmune disease? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2005;40:544–549. DOI: 10.1097/01.MPG.0000162004.44971.92.
  12. Crownover BK, Covey CJ. Hereditary hemochromatosis. Am Fam Physician 2013; 87:183. PMID: 23418762.
  13. Asai A, Malladi S, Misch J, et al. Elaboration of tubules with active hedgehog drives parenchymal fibrogenesis in gestational alloimmune liver disease. Hum Pathol 2015;46(1):84–93. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2014.09.010.
  14. Nobre S, Grazina M, et al. Neonatal Liver failure due to deoxyguanosine kinase deficiency. BMJ Case Rep 2012;2012:bcr.12.2011.5317. DOI: 10.1136/bcr.12.2011.5317.
  15. Whitington PF, Kelly S, Taylor S, et al. Antenatal treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent gestational alloimmune liver disease: comparative effectiveness of 14-week versus 18-week initiation. Fetal Diagn Ther 2017;43:218. DOI: 10.1159/000477616.
  16. Rand EB, Karpen SJ, Kelly S, et al. Treatment of neonatal hemochromatosis with exchange transfusion and intravenous immunoglobulin. J Pediatr 2009;155(4):566–571. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.04.012.
  17. Tebruegge M, Curtis N. Enterovirus infections in neonates. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2009;14(4):222–227. DOI: 10.1016/j.siny.2009.02.002.
  18. Thompson C, Whitley R. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections: where are we now? Adv Exp Med Biol 2011;697:221–230. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7185-2_15.
  19. Haddad J, Gut JP, Wendling MJ, et al. Enterovirus infections in neonates. A retrospective study of 21 cases. Eur J Med 1993;2:209–214. PMID: 8261072.
  20. Kaplan MH, Klein SW, McPhee J, et al. Group B coxsackievirus infections in infants younger than three months of age: a serious childhood illness. Rev Infect Dis 1983;5(6):1019–1032. DOI: 10.1093/clinids/5.6.1019.
  21. Jones MJ, Kolb M, Votava HJ, et al. Case reports. Intrauterine echovirus type II infection. Mayo Clin Proc 1980;55:509–512. PMID: 7401693.
  22. Ouellet A, Sherlock R, Toye B, et al. Antenatal diagnosis of intrauterine infection with coxsackievirus B3 associated with live birth. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2004;12(1):23–26. DOI: 10.1080/1064744042000210357.
  23. Modlin JF. Perinatal echovirus infection: insights from a literature review of 61 cases of serious infection and 16 outbreaks in nurseries. Rev Infect Dis 1986;8(6):918–926. DOI: 10.1093/clinids/8.6.918.
  24. Lake AM, Lauer BA, Clark JC, et al. Enterovirus infections in neonates. J Pediatr 1976;89:787–791. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3476(76)80808-6.
  25. Abzug MJ, Levin MJ, Rotbart HA. Profile of enterovirus disease in the first two weeks of life. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993;12:820–824. DOI: 10.1097/00006454-199310000-00005.
  26. Krajden S, Middleton PJ. Enterovirus infections in the neonate. Clin Pediatr 1983;22:87–92. DOI: 10.1177/000992288302200201.
  27. Bryant PA, Tingay D, Dargaville PA, et al. Neonatal coxsackie B virus infection–a treatable disease? Eur J Pediatr 2004;163:223–228. DOI: 10.1007/s00431-004-1408-y.
  28. Lin TY, Kao HT, Hsieh SH, et al. Neonatal enterovirus infections: emphasis on risk factors of severe and fatal infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22:889–894. DOI: 10.1097/01.inf.0000091294.63706.f3.
  29. Isacsohn M, Eidelman AI, Kaplan M, et al. Neonatal coxsackievirus group B infections: experience of a single department of neonatology. Isr J Med Sci 1994;30:371–374. PMID: 7518424.
  30. Jenista JA, Powell KR, Menegus MA. Epidemiology of neonatal enterovirus infection. J Pediatr 1984;104:685–690. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3476(84)80944-0.
  31. Johnston JM, Overall Jr JC. Intravenous immunoglobulin in disseminated neonatal echovirus 11 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1989;8(4):254–256. PMID: 2717278.
  32. Abzug MJ, Keyserling HL, Lee ML, et al. Neonatal enterovirus infection: virology, serology, and effects of intravenous immune globulin. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:1201–1206. DOI: 10.1093/clinids/20.5.1201.
  33. Abzug MJ, Michaels MG, Wald E, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pleconaril for the treatment of neonates with enterovirus sepsis. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2016;5:53. DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piv015.
  34. Desmond RA, Accortt NA, Talley L, et al. Enteroviral meningitis: natural history and outcome of pleconaril therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:2409. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00227-06.
  35. Farquhar JW, Claireaux AE. Familial haemophagocytic reticulosis. Arch Dis Child 1952;27(136):519–525. DOI: 10.1136/adc.27.136.519.
  36. Ladisch S, Poplack DG, Holiman B, et al. Immunodeficiency in familial erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Lancet 1978;1(8064): 581–583. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(78)91028-0.
  37. Jaffe ES, Costa J, Fauci AS, et al. Malignant lymphoma and erythrophagocytosis simulating malignant histiocytosis. Am J Med 1983;75(5):741–749. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9343(83)90402-3.
  38. Hadchouel M, Prieur AM, Griscelli C. Acute hemorrhagic, hepatic, and neurologic manifestations in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: possible relationship to drugs or infection. J Pediatr 1985;106(4): 561–566. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3476(85)80072-x.
  39. Goldberg J, Nezelof C. Lymphohistiocytosis: a multi-factorial syndrome of macrophagic activation clinico-pathological study of 38 cases. Hematol Oncol 1986;4(4):275–289. DOI: 10.1002/hon.2900040405.
  40. Risdall RJ, McKenna RW, Nesbit ME, et al. Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome: a benign histiocytic proliferation distinct from malignant histiocytosis. Cancer 1979;44(3): 993–1002. DOI: 10.1002/1097-0142(197909)44:3<993::aid-cncr2820440329>3.0.co;2-5.
  41. Stepp SE, Dufourcq-Lagelouse R, Le Deist F, et al. Perforin gene defects in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Science 1999;286(5446):1957–1959. DOI: 10.1126/science.286.5446.1957.
  42. Henter JI, Samuelsson-Horne A, Arico M, et al. Treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with HLH-94 immunochemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Blood 2002;100(7):2367–2373. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2002-01-0172.
  43. Henter JI, Horne A, Arico M, et al. HLH-2004: diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007;48(2):124–131. DOI: 10.1002/pbc.21039.
  44. Henter JI, Elinder G, Söder O, et al. Incidence in Sweden and clinical features of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Acta Paediatr Scand 1991;80:428. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1991.tb11878.x.
  45. Jordan MB, Allen CE, Weitzman S, et al. How I treat hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Blood 2011;118(15):4041. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-03-278127.
  46. Bergsten E, Horne A, Aricó M, et al. Confirmed efficacy of etoposide and dexamethasone in HLH treatment: long-term results of the cooperative HLH-2004 study. Blood 2017;130:2728. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2017-06-788349.
  47. Jordan MB, Allen CE, Greenberg J, et al. Challenges in the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: recommendations from the North American Consortium for Histiocytosis (NACHO). Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019;66:e27929. DOI: 10.1002/pbc.27929.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.